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Send MSN Feedback. How can we improve? The primary use of this valve is to maintain the spinning of the turbocharger at a high speed.
The air is usually recycled back into the turbocharger inlet diverter or bypass valves , but can also be vented to the atmosphere blow off valve.
Recycling back into the turbocharger inlet is required on an engine that uses a mass-airflow fuel injection system, because dumping the excessive air overboard downstream of the mass airflow sensor causes an excessively rich fuel mixture—because the mass-airflow sensor has already accounted for the extra air that is no longer being used.
Valves that recycle the air also shorten the time needed to re-spool the turbocharger after sudden engine deceleration, since load on the turbocharger when the valve is active is much lower than if the air charge vents to atmosphere.
A free floating turbocharger is the simplest type of turbocharger. Free floating turbochargers produce more horsepower because they have less backpressure, but are not driveable in performance applications without an external wastegate.
Also in , Chevrolet introduced a special run of turbocharged Corvairs , initially called the Monza Spyder — and later renamed the Corsa — , which mounted a turbocharger to its air cooled flat six cylinder engine.
Today, turbocharging is common on both diesel and petrol-powered cars. Turbocharging can increase power output for a given capacity  or increase fuel efficiency by allowing a smaller displacement engine.
The first production turbocharger diesel passenger car was the Garrett-turbocharged  Mercedes SD introduced in The Audi R10 with a diesel engine even won the 24 hours race of Le Mans in , and Since then, few turbocharged motorcycles have been produced.
This is partially due to an abundance of larger displacement, naturally aspirated engines being available that offer the torque and power benefits of a smaller displacement engine with turbocharger, but do return more linear power characteristics.
A natural use of the turbocharger—and its earliest known use for any internal combustion engine, starting with experimental installations in the s—is with aircraft engines.
As an aircraft climbs to higher altitudes the pressure of the surrounding air quickly falls off. However, since the charge in the cylinders is pushed in by this air pressure, the engine normally produces only half-power at full throttle at this altitude.
Pilots would like to take advantage of the low drag at high altitudes to go faster, but a naturally aspirated engine does not produce enough power at the same altitude to do so.
The table below is used to demonstrate the wide range of conditions experienced. As seen in the table below, there is significant scope for forced induction to compensate for lower density environments.
A turbocharger remedies this problem by compressing the air back to sea-level pressures turbo-normalizing , or even much higher turbo-charging , in order to produce rated power at high altitude.
Since the size of the turbocharger is chosen to produce a given amount of pressure at high altitude, the turbocharger is oversized for low altitude.
The speed of the turbocharger is controlled by a wastegate. Early systems used a fixed wastegate, resulting in a turbocharger that functioned much like a supercharger.
Later systems utilized an adjustable wastegate, controlled either manually by the pilot or by an automatic hydraulic or electric system.
When the aircraft is at low altitude the wastegate is usually fully open, venting all the exhaust gases overboard.
As the aircraft climbs and the air density drops, the wastegate must continuously close in small increments to maintain full power. The altitude at which the wastegate fully closes and the engine still produces full power is the critical altitude.
When the aircraft climbs above the critical altitude, engine power output decreases as altitude increases, just as it would in a naturally aspirated engine.
With older supercharged aircraft without Automatic Boost Control, the pilot must continually adjust the throttle to maintain the required manifold pressure during ascent or descent.
The pilot must also take care to avoid over-boosting the engine and causing damage. In contrast, modern turbocharger systems use an automatic wastegate, which controls the manifold pressure within parameters preset by the manufacturer.
For these systems, as long as the control system is working properly and the pilot's control commands are smooth and deliberate, a turbocharger cannot over-boost the engine and damage it.
Yet the majority of World War II engines used superchargers, because they maintained three significant manufacturing advantages over turbochargers, which were larger, involved extra piping, and required exotic high-temperature materials in the turbine and pre-turbine section of the exhaust system.
The size of the piping alone is a serious issue; American fighters Vought F4U and Republic P used the same engine, but the huge barrel-like fuselage of the latter was, in part, needed to hold the piping to and from the turbocharger in the rear of the plane.
Turbocharged piston engines are also subject to many of the same operating restrictions as gas turbine engines.
Pilots must make smooth, slow throttle adjustments to avoid overshooting their target manifold pressure.
In systems using a manually operated wastegate, the pilot must be careful not to exceed the turbocharger's maximum rpm. The additional systems and piping increase an aircraft engine's size, weight, complexity and cost.
A turbocharged aircraft engine costs more to maintain than a comparable normally aspirated engine. All of the above WWII aircraft engines had mechanically driven centrifugal superchargers as designed from the start, and the turbosuperchargers with intercoolers were added, effectively as twincharger systems, to achieve desired altitude performance.
Turbocharged aircraft often occupy a performance range between that of normally aspirated piston-powered aircraft and turbine-powered aircraft.
Despite the negative points, turbocharged aircraft fly higher for greater efficiency. High cruise flight also allows more time to evaluate issues before a forced landing must be made.
As the turbocharged aircraft climbs, however, the pilot or automated system can close the wastegate, forcing more exhaust gas through the turbocharger turbine, thereby maintaining manifold pressure during the climb, at least until the critical pressure altitude is reached when the wastegate is fully closed , after which manifold pressure falls.
With such systems, modern high-performance piston engine aircraft can cruise at altitudes up to 25, feet above which, RVSM certification would be required , where low air density results in lower drag and higher true airspeeds.
This allows flying "above the weather". In manually controlled wastegate systems, the pilot must take care not to overboost the engine, which causes detonation, leading to engine damage.
Turbocharging, which is common on diesel engines in automobiles, trucks, tractors, and boats is also common in heavy machinery such as locomotives, ships, and auxiliary power generation.
Turbochargers are also employed in certain two-stroke cycle diesel engines, which would normally require a Roots blower for aspiration. In this specific application, mainly Electro-Motive Diesel EMD , , and Series engines, the turbocharger is initially driven by the engine's crankshaft through a gear train and an overrunning clutch , thereby providing aspiration for combustion.
After combustion has been achieved, and after the exhaust gases have reached sufficient heat energy, the overrunning clutch is automatically disengaged, and the turbo-compressor is thereafter driven exclusively by the exhaust gases.
In the EMD application, the turbocharger acts as a compressor for normal aspiration during starting and low power output settings and is used for true turbocharging during medium and high power output settings.
This is particularly beneficial at high altitudes, as are often encountered on western U. It is possible for the turbocharger to revert to compressor mode momentarily during commands for large increases in engine power.
The U. Coalition for Advanced Diesel Cars is pushing for a technology neutral policy for government subsidies of environmentally friendly automotive technology.
If successful, government subsidies would be based on the Corporate Average Fuel Economy CAFE standards rather than supporting specific technologies like electric cars.
Political shifts could drastically change adoption projections. Turbocharger failures and resultant high exhaust temperatures are among the causes of car fires.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Turbo-supercharger. Forced induction device for internal combustion engines. Several terms redirect here.
For other uses, see Turbo disambiguation. Not to be confused with Supercharger. Main article: Supercharger. This section does not cite any sources.
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Main article: Twin-turbo. Cut-out of a twin-scroll turbocharger, with two differently angled nozzles. Main article: Variable-geometry turbocharger.
Main article: Centrifugal compressor. Main article: Compressor map. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.